著名交响曲:柏辽兹的《戏剧交响曲 - 罗密欧与朱丽叶》(1839)

打印 (被阅读 次)

柏辽兹的《戏剧交响曲 - 罗密欧与朱丽叶》(Roméo et Juliette,symphonie dramatique),以下简称“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶”,是作曲家的又一部富于创新精神的杰作。

如果说我们上次欣赏的《幻想交响曲》是一部典型的标题交响曲,那么今天要欣赏的这部“戏剧交响曲”(symphonie dramatique)与标题交响曲又有所不同。她除了有交响乐队,标题,还有独唱,合唱,以及相应的剧情;但她又不是音乐会形式的歌剧,而是从话剧中选出几个片段,在音乐上进行再创作。简言之,这是一部带有独唱,合唱及戏剧情节的交响曲。

“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶”的剧情和歌词并不是出于莎士比亚的原作,而是由法国诗人埃米勒·德尚(Émile Deschamps,1791-1871)根据莎翁的原著编写的。

整部作品的结构也很新颖,由三大部分共七个分段组成,下面是各段落的标题及其包含的一些情节的文字提示,这些标题和文字的原文均出自作曲家本人(由于作品中是器乐与合唱及女中音,男高音,男中音三种独唱交替出现,为了欣赏方便,我在相应的地方加了 [乐队] ,[合唱],[女中],[男高],[男中] 等注释。声乐部分歌词的英译见本文附录,可惜没有找到歌词的中译):

第一部分:

  1. 引子(Introduction):

格斗 – 骚动(Combats  – Tumulte)-

[乐队]

王子的介入(Intervention du prince)-

[乐队]

开场 – 宣叙调 – 小谐谑曲(Prologue – Strophes – Scherzetto)

[合唱],[女中],[合唱],[男高],[合唱]

第二部分:

  1. 罗密欧独自一人- 忧伤(Roméo seul  – Tristesse)

远处音乐会与舞会的声音(Bruits lointains de concert et de bal )-

凯普莱特家豪华的宴会(Grande fête chez)

[乐队]

  1. 爱情场景(Scène d'amour )

宁静的夜(Nuit serène)-

凯普莱特家冷落僻静的花园(Le jardin de Capulet silencieux et déserte)-

凯普莱特家族的小伙子们从舞会中出来,唱着回味舞会音乐的曲调走过(Les jeunes Capulets sortant de la fête en chantant des réminiscences de la musique du bal)。

[乐队],[合唱],[乐队 – 这里是主要的爱情场景]

  1. 谐谑曲:梦的精灵麦布女王(Scherzo: La reine Mab, reine des songes)。

[乐队]

第三部分:

  1. 朱丽叶的送葬队伍:“为死去的少女献花”(Convoi funèbre de Juliette: "Jetez des fleurs pour la vierge expirée" )。

[乐队],[合唱],[乐队]

  1. 罗密欧在凯普莱特家族墓地(Roméo au tombeau des Capulets)

符咒:朱丽叶醒来 – 神志不清的快乐,绝望(Invocation: Réveil de Juliette – Joie délirante, désespoir)-

两位恋人最后的阵痛与死亡(Dernières angoisses et mort des deux amants )

[乐队]

  1. 终曲(Finale):

墓地上众人的混乱(La foule accourt au cimetière)-

两个家族的争吵(Des Capulets et des Montagus)-

劳伦斯神父的咏叹调(Récitatif et Air du Père Laurence)-

和解的盟誓(Serment de réconciliation Oath)

[合唱],[男中],[合唱]

以上关于作品的结构和段落划分以及作曲家的文字说明,都是根据英文的维基百科;这种划分与下面给出的视频是一致的。全曲用时约 97 - 105 分钟。

作品的乐队编制大体与上次欣赏的“幻想交响曲”相似,在当时是很大型的乐队,包括:短笛一支,英国管一支(由双簧管演奏者之一兼任),长笛,双簧管,单簧管,短号(cornet),小号(trumpet)各两支,长号三支,大管,圆号各四支,低音大号一支,定音鼓两组,军鼓两面,大鼓一面,铙钹(西乐,定音打击乐器)一架,竖琴两架,以及其它弦乐。

除乐队外,作品的演出还需要女中音,男高音,男低音独唱各一名,及一个混声合唱队。三位独唱中的女中音和男高音并不是在通常意义上“扮演”剧中人,而是以叙事者的身份讲述一些剧情;只有男中音唱出剧中“劳伦斯神父的咏叹调”。

剧情中男女主角的爱情场景是通过乐队表达的。对此,柏辽兹曾有过明确说明:“首先,这是一部交响曲,而不是歌剧。其次,这一情节写成声乐二重唱,已有成百上千例,而且是由最著名的大师写的。因此试一下其它表现手法,可以说是既明智又有趣。”(详见英文维基百科条目。) 在第3段“爱情场景”开头一段较短的男声合唱(“凯普莱特家族的小伙子们从舞会中出来,唱着回味舞会音乐的曲调走过”)以后,乐队以较长的“篇幅”非常细腻地表现了罗密欧与朱丽叶的互动与相爱,主要以木管乐组展示朱丽叶,而以大提琴及其它弦乐展示罗密欧,二者时而交错对答,时而又重叠在一起。全段旋律柔美,意境甜蜜,可以说是全曲最精华的部分。

“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶”以其新颖的“戏剧交响曲”的形式,在整个交响曲历史上是一部非常独特,非常优秀的奇葩。

下面是“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶” 的一个音像,是2014年由意大利指挥家丹尼尔·加蒂(Daniele Gatti)指挥法国国家管弦乐团(The Orchestre National de France)演奏的,独唱者是:

Marianne Crebassa,

Paolo Fanale

Alex Esposito

Berlioz : "Roméo et Juliette" conducted by Daniele Gatti

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zf7kGcB4VSQ&t=766s&ab_channel=FranceMusique

 

下面是“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶” 音像的另一个版本,2012年由美国指挥家詹姆斯·加菲根(James Gaffigan)指挥荷兰广播爱乐乐团(Radio Filharmonisch Orkest),荷兰广播合唱团(Groot Omroepkoor)演出:

Berlioz Roméo et Juliette Radio Filharmonisch Orkest Full concert in HD

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRIie-baG6w&t=4632s

 

下面是“柏辽兹的罗密欧与朱丽叶” 的一个音频版本:由柯林 戴维斯(Colin Davis)指挥伦敦交响乐团(London Symphony Orchestra),约翰·阿尔迪斯合唱团(John Alldis Choir)演出:

Berlioz Roméo Et Juliette, Colin Davis conductor

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rq70kveJxrw&ab_channel=EGmusicOperaProdu%C3%A7%C3%B5es

 

关于这部作品的更多概况,英文见维基百科:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rom%C3%A9o_et_Juliette_(Berlioz)

中文见新芭网(可能是所依据作品版本的不同,新芭网关于作品的段落划分与上文有不同):

https://www.sin80.com/work/berlioz-romeo-juliet-op17

..............................................................................

附录:

转贴:柏辽兹的《戏剧交响曲 - 罗密欧与朱丽叶》分段标题及声乐部分歌词的英译

https://www.chandos.net/chanimages/Booklets/LN0521.pdf

 

No. 1

Instrumental introduction

 

Fighting – Disorder – The Prince’s Intervention.

 

Prologue

Harmonic recitative

 

Long-buried hatred has reappeared,

as if from hell.

Capulets and Montagues, two enemy families,

have been fighting in Verona.

The Prince, however, has put a stop to

these blood-stained squabbles

by threatening death for anyone who, in spite of his orders,

has recourse to the sword as an arbiter of justice.

 

In this period of peace a ball is given

by the old head of the Capulets.

Young Romeo, lamenting his ill-fortune,

wanders sadly around the palace.

For he is in love with Juliet, daughter

of his family’s enemies!

The sound of instruments and singing is heard

from the ballroom where the glitter of gold

inspires dancing and happy cheer.

 

The ball is over, and when the clamour has died down

the weary dancers can be heard

under the colonnades heading home and singing.

Alas, Romeo sighs because

he had to leave Juliet. Suddenly

to breathe again the very air that she breathes

he climbs over the garden wall.

Fair Juliet was already there on her balcony,

and thinking she was alone all night

confesses her love to the night.

 

Panting with anxious joy

Romeo tells Juliet he is there,

and the flames of love flare up in his heart too.

 

Strophes

 

First passion, never forgotten,

first avowals, first promises

between two lovers

beneath Italian stars;

in this warm, motionless air

scented by distant orange trees,

where the nightingale pours out

his endless sighs!

 

What art, in any language,

could convey your heavenly bliss?

First love! Are you not

beyond the reach of poetry?

 

Or are you not, in our human exile,

the very poetry

of which Shakespeare himself had the innermost secret

and which he took with him to heaven?

 

Happy children with hearts ablaze!

Bound in love by the chance

of a single exchange of glances,

sharing the same soul!

Hide it beneath flowers in the darkness,

this divine fire that consumes you;

ecstasy so pure

that its words are tears!

 

What king could ever match

the pleasure of your chaste bliss?

Happy children! What wealth could afford

even one of your smiles?

 

Oh, enjoy this cup of honey for ever,

sweeter than the chalices

from which God’s angels, jealous of your pleasures,

taste the joys of heaven.

 

Return of the Prologue chorus

 

Romeo’s pallid dreaming soon

sets all his friends laughing.

'My dear,’ says elegant Mercutio,

‘I bet Queen Mab has been with you.’

 

Vocal scherzetto

 

Mab, the messenger,

light and slender,

her chariot is an empty nut

made by the joiner squirrel,

a spider’s fingers

wove her harness.

 

At night the fairy gallops wildly in this tiny carriage

through a page’s brain, making him

dream of mischief

or of a gentle serenade

beneath the tower in moonlight.

Carrying on her way

the little queen lands

on a soldier’s tanned neck…

He is dreaming of cannonfire

and swift swordthrusts,

drums! trumpets! He wakes, then

curses, prays, swearing the while, then back to sleep

and snores with his comrades.

It’s Mab who caused all this carousing,

she too who, in a dream, dresses

the young girl

and takes her to the ball.

But the cock crows, the day dawns,

and Mab vanishes into thin air

like lightning.

 

Return of the Prologue chorus

 

Soon death seizes the upper hand.

Capulets and Montagues, crushed by grief,

come together at last to forswear the hatred

that caused so much blood and so many

tears to flow.

 

No. 2: Andante and Allegro

 

Romeo alone. Melancholy – Distant sounds

of music and dancing.

The Capulets’ ball.

 

No. 3: Love scene

 

Serene night. The Capulets’ garden, silent

and deserted.

 

Young Capulets leaving the ball

go by, singing snatches of the

ballroom music.

 

Hey there, Capulets! Goodnight, goodnight!

What a night! What a party!

Divine ball!

What silly things

were said!

Verona’s lovely girls

beneath the larches,

dream of dancing and love

until daybreak.

 

No. 4: Scherzo

 

Queen Mab, or the Dream Fairy.

 

No. 5: Juliet’s funeral procession

 

Throw flowers for the virgin now deceased!

Follow our beloved sister to the

grave!

 

No. 6: Romeo in the Capulets’ vault

 

Romeo in the Capulets’ vault.

Invocation – Juliet wakes – Delirious joy,

despair, the final agony and death of the

two lovers.

 

No. 7: Finale

 

The crowd rushes to the cemetery. Scuffles

between Capulets and Montagues.

 

Montagues

What! Romeo back home! Romeo!

For Juliet he gets into the vault

of the hated Capulets!

Oh, a curse upon them!

Romeo, heavens! Both dead!

Their blood still warm!

What a dreadful mystery!

 

Capulets

What! Romeo back home! Romeo!

Some Montagues broke into the vault

where lies Juliet, who died at dawn.

Oh, a curse upon them!

Juliet, heavens! Both dead!

Their blood still warm!

What a dreadful mystery!

 

Recitative and Air of Friar Laurence

 

I shall reveal the mystery:

this corpse, this was Juliet’s

husband! Do you see that body

on the ground there?

That was, alas, Romeo’s wife. It is I

who married them.

 

Both choruses

Married!

 

Friar Laurence

Yes, I admit it. I saw the salutary promise

of a future friendship between your two houses.

 

Both choruses

Friends to the Capulets/Montagues. Us?

We curse them!

 

Friar Laurence

But you have resumed the family feud.

Desperate to escape another match, the unhappy girl

came to see me.

‘Only you,’ she cried,

‘can save me!

Death is my only escape!’

In this extreme predicament

I gave her a potion

to avert her fate that very night

by making her as pale and cold as death.

 

Both choruses

A potion…

 

Friar Laurence

I was coming to help her, not afraid.

But Romeo, deceived in the mortuary vault,

was there first, and had died

on the body of his beloved,

just before she woke. Juliet, learning

that death was working through his ruined body,

seized Romeo’s dagger and turned it on herself,

and was on her way to eternity

when I arrived. That is the complete truth.

 

Old men from both families

Married!

 

Friar Laurence

Poor children whom I lament,

perished together before their time,

over your unhappy home

the future will come to weep.

Made great through you

Verona will one day

owe its sufferings and its glory

to the memory of you alone.

 

Where are these fierce enemies now?

Capulets! Montagues! Come, look, touch…

With that hatred in your hearts and insults on your lips

draw near to these pale lovers, you savages

God will punish you in your weaknesses.

His punishments, his avenging thunderbolts

hold the secret of our fears!

Do you hear his thundering voice:

‘If my vengeance is to forgive you on high,

forget your own rage.’

 

Montagues

But our blood has stained their swords!

 

Capulets

But our blood has stained their swords!

 

Montagues

Our swords are raised against them!

 

Capulets

They killed Tybalt!

 

Montagues

Who killed Mercutio?

 

Capulets

What about Pâris?

 

Montagues

And Benvolio?

 

Capulets

Traitors, there’s no peace!

 

Montagues

No, you cowards, no truce!

 

Friar Laurence

Silence, you wretches! How can you display

such brazen hatred in the face of such love?

Must your hatred flare up again here

enflamed by the torches for the dead?

 

Great God, who see into the depths of our souls,

you know that my wishes were pure;

great God, touch these cruel, dark hearts

with the warmth of your flame!

May your guardian breath,

rising over them at my voice,

drive away their anger

and scatter it like straw in the wind!

 

Montagues

O Juliet, sweet flower,

at this final moment

the Montagues are ready

to be touched by your fate.

 

Capulets

Romeo, young fallen star,

at this final moment

the Capulets are ready

to be touched by your fate.

 

Both choruses

Heavens! What a remarkable prodigy!

No more misery! No more malice!

But in the tears from Heaven

our souls are transformed!

 

Oath of reconciliation

 

Friar Laurence

Now swear by this solemn symbol,

over the body of your son and your daughter,

by the consoling power of the cross,

swear, all of you, by the holy crucifix,

to seal between you an eternal bond

of tender charity and brotherly friendship.

May God, who gives the final judgement,

inscribe this oath in the book of forgiveness!

 

Both choruses

We swear by this solemn symbol,

over the body of our son and our daughter,

by the consoling power of the cross,

we swear, by the holy crucifix,

to seal between us an eternal bond

of tender charity and brotherly friendship.

May God, who gives the final judgement,

inscribe this oath in the book of forgiveness!

We swear to put all our enmity finally away,

friends for ever!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chang_Le 发表评论于
回复 '老朽' 的评论 : 谢谢,对我过奖了。对柏辽兹我也是敬佩得紧。你提到的都是名曲,给我印象比较深的,除了这些以及《戏剧交响曲-罗密欧与朱丽叶》,还有歌剧《特洛伊人》,我虽然看了不止一遍录像,但还时常惦记着,想什么时候有空再看一遍。
老朽 发表评论于
你是专家,懂的真多。我对伯辽兹的了解仅限于幻想,罗马,李尔王和拉柯奇。我把法国音乐家排名的话,#1是伯辽兹。世界前十我也投伯一票。伯在巴黎的墓地去过。
我有名人情结,贝和莫的出生及墓地都去过。
登录后才可评论.